Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MWP_EventListener_PublicRequest_SetHitCounter::$requestStack is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/EventListener/PublicRequest/SetHitCounter.php on line 53

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MWP_Worker_Kernel::$responseCallback is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/Worker/Kernel.php on line 38

Deprecated: base64_decode(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/Worker/Request.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields.php on line 138

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_loop::$loops is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/loop.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$loop is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/loop.php on line 269

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$revisions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/revisions.php on line 387

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_validation::$errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/validation.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$validation is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/validation.php on line 215

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_fields is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 29

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 30

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$form_front is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-front.php on line 600

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_reference is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 36

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WooCommerce::$api is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/class-woocommerce.php on line 556

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderTableMigrator.php on line 25

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderAddressTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderAddressTableMigrator.php on line 42

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderOpTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderOpTableMigrator.php on line 26

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostMetaToOrderMetaMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostMetaToOrderMetaMigrator.php on line 43

Deprecated: Return type of SkyVerge\WooCommerce\PluginFramework\v5_10_12\SV_WC_DateTime::getTimestamp() should either be compatible with DateTime::getTimestamp(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/compatibility/class-sv-wc-datetime.php on line 85

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_HTTPInterface::$expects_json is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/HTTPInterface.php on line 305

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_HTTPInterface::$owner is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/HTTPInterface.php on line 307

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_API_Spam_ReCaptcha::$data_utils is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/api/Service.php on line 244

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_API_Spam_ReCaptcha::$API_KEY_REQUIRED is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/api/Service.php on line 247

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Countries::$countries is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/class-wc-countries.php on line 51

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Library::$layout_tags is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/feature/Library.php on line 380

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Library::$layout_width is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/feature/Library.php on line 383

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 5704

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10366

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10534

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10556

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10576

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10605

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10634

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10666

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10690

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10724

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10760

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10791

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10939

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10961

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 21028

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 21032

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field__group::$have_rows is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-group.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_clone::$cloning is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/pro/fields/class-acf-field-clone.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_clone::$have_rows is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/pro/fields/class-acf-field-clone.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$auth_environment is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/includes/class-wc-gateway-braintree.php on line 160

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$connection_settings is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$fraud_settings_title is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$threed_secure_title is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_PayPal::$auth_environment is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/includes/class-wc-gateway-braintree.php on line 160

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_PayPal::$connection_settings is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_categories is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 114

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_tags is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 115

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_type is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 116

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$testmode is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 60

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$debug is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 61

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 62

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$receiver_email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 63

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$identity_token is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_BACS::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/bacs/class-wc-gateway-bacs.php on line 49

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_BACS::$account_details is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/bacs/class-wc-gateway-bacs.php on line 52

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Cheque::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cheque/class-wc-gateway-cheque.php on line 41

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 40

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$enable_for_methods is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 41

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$enable_for_virtual is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 42

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$testmode is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 60

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$debug is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 61

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 62

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$receiver_email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 63

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$identity_token is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Cart::$coupon_discount_totals is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/legacy/class-wc-legacy-cart.php on line 266

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Cart::$coupon_discount_tax_totals is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/legacy/class-wc-legacy-cart.php on line 266

Deprecated: preg_match(): Passing null to parameter #2 ($subject) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/EventListener/PublicRequest/SetHitCounter.php on line 113

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_PageResource::$location is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/PageResource.php on line 306

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_BoxShadow::$template is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/field/BoxShadow.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_PageResource::$location is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/PageResource.php on line 306

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$folder_name is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$folder_name is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$child_item_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$child_item_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$additional_shortcode_slugs is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$advanced_setting_title_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315
Smart Cities Are Forgetting Food - Food+City Deprecated: strstr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($haystack) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/wc-page-functions.php on line 139
class="post-template post-template-single-story post-template-single-story-php single single-post postid-2641 single-format-standard theme-Divi woocommerce-no-js et_button_no_icon et_pb_button_helper_class et_fixed_nav et_show_nav et_pb_show_title et_secondary_nav_enabled et_primary_nav_dropdown_animation_fade et_secondary_nav_dropdown_animation_fade et_header_style_left et_pb_footer_columns2 et_cover_background et_pb_gutter et_pb_gutters3 et_pb_pagebuilder_layout et_full_width_page et_divi_theme et-db">

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_Border::$template is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/field/Border.php on line 48

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_Divider::$count is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/main-structure-elements.php on line 1498

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Button::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Button::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Button::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

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Smart cities use technology and data-driven solutions to make people’s lives better. But until recently, cities have failed to adopt this methodology for what is perhaps the most critical urban system: food. As urban agriculture builds momentum, now is the time for cities to embrace this young industry and foster urban food systems through a data-driven and “smart” approach.

Urban agriculture has the capacity to ameliorate many issues plaguing urban areas. It can contribute to green infrastructure efforts, create a food source that’s safeguarded against climate events and provide a variety of local jobs. But despite the potential of this nascent industry to improve the lives of city dwellers, urban agriculture is often left out of the Smart City discussions and policy decisions that have quickly gained popularity across the globe.

Nevertheless, the urban agriculture industry is growing rapidly as it tries to meet an ever-increasing demand for nutritious local produce. AgriFood Tech investment reached $10.1 billion in 2017, including $200 million in Series B funding for vertical farming company Plenty.

Let’s be clear: Urban agriculture is not the solution to our food system crisis. Other solutions are sorely needed as well, including ways of fostering stronger regional connections between farms and cities. Food waste is also a major issue that needs to be tackled. But urban agriculture is, and will continue to be, an essential component of how every country and city restructures its food system to make fresh food supplies more available, resilient and ecologically friendly.

Cities and Agriculture

Just like energy, transportation and internet access, the processes of food production and distribution are integral parts of the urban ecosystem. And like those other system components, agriculture should be supported through smart policies that are data-driven and context specific. The path forward for resilient cities and communities must include thoughtfully planned urban agriculture.

Some cities around the U.S. and abroad are beginning to implement policies to encourage the industry’s growth as a critical part of local and regional food systems.

In Atlanta, for example, a director of urban agriculture within the mayor’s Office of Resilience ensures that municipal support is consistently available to local farmers via the AgLanta digital resource hub, along with a wide range of other initiatives. Through the city’s “Grows-A-Lot” program, Atlanta residents and nonprofit organizations can secure renewable five-year leases to farm vacant city-owned property.

Many other cities have passed zoning ordinances and started programs to promote the expansion of urban agriculture. In Boston, Article 89 comprehensively addresses where different forms of urban farms should be permitted within the city. In Minneapolis, the Homegrown local food program brings municipal and community actors together to research and plan out future supportive policies. In Paris, a municipal initiative called ‘Parisculteurs’ aims to cover the city’s rooftops and walls with 100 hectares of green space by 2020, and to dedicate a third of that space towards food production. And in Singapore, developers are incentivized to include urban farms as part of green building requirements.

But these efforts are largely piecemeal. Few cities, if any, are using data-driven urban-agriculture planning and analysis to ensure future resilience in this burgeoning sector of municipal economies. By performing in-depth analysis on where the greatest vulnerabilities lie within their local food systems, cities can change what today is mostly a feel-good concept into a critical framework that can be scaled to transform local food production. Using data can help determine the best opportunities to bolster urban and peri-urban production to achieve goals such as food access or stormwater management.

The idea here is not to turn urban agriculture into a top-down model. The decentralized and diverse nature of urban farming models is a major contributing factor to the industry’s rapid pace of innovation and its ability to be a resilient source of food production. Rather, the idea is for cities and regions to understand where the greatest vulnerabilities and opportunities lie within their local food systems, and then to plan out and provide support to targeted areas of the food economy, perhaps through local food distribution hubs and farming incubators for entrepreneurs and startups.

Advances in urban agriculture planning are happening — slowly. Cities and communities are starting to work together across sectors and silos to recognize and promote agriculture’s role as an integral component of smart, resilient cities. But there is plenty of work to be done.

Taking the Next Step

Now, like passionate entrepreneurs first entering the food- system space, many cities have great intentions for urban agriculture. Unfortunately, many cities also lack the capacity and technical knowledge to understand where the local food system should be strengthened to most effectively make it smarter and more resilient against environmental, social and economic stressors.

For cities to become smart in this sector, they no longer need to recognize the many benefits of urban agriculture — that has already happened throughout mayoral administrations, academic halls and even more recently in Congress. The time for putting energy into persuasion is over.

For our part, at Agritecture we have designed a new service called Urban Agriculture Scenario Analysis to assist cities in analyzing and strengthening their local food capabilities. Using site-specific and scale-specific data and modeling, Scenario Analysis can transform a city’s piecemeal farming community into a diversified urban agriculture economy.

The good news: There is a wealth of burgeoning technology around urban and peri-urban food production and distribution. Many urban farms are already “smart,” using sensors and data to tailor everything from lighting to crop nutrition. This is true in large farms such as AeroFarms, which dominates an entire converted warehouse in Newark, New Jersey, and also in smaller farms like Farm.One, which takes advantage of underutilized basement space in Manhattan to cultivate rare specialty crops for the city’s restaurants.

But if cities are going to be successful in integrating advances in food system technology into their wider metropolitan planning efforts, they must apply a data-driven methodology similar to the approach that many urban farmers are taking to more effectively grow crops.

A Smart City revolution is currently sweeping the world. Although we remain in the early stages, this revolution will soon transform the way that cities support the most essential components of urban life. To ensure that food isn’t left out of the equation, cities must start supporting urban agriculture in targeted ways that work with the urban agriculture industry to reconstruct our food production and distribution systems into smarter, more localized and more resilient networks.