Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MWP_EventListener_PublicRequest_SetHitCounter::$requestStack is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/EventListener/PublicRequest/SetHitCounter.php on line 53

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property MWP_Worker_Kernel::$responseCallback is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/Worker/Kernel.php on line 38

Deprecated: base64_decode(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/Worker/Request.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$fields is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields.php on line 138

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_loop::$loops is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/loop.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$loop is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/loop.php on line 269

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$revisions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/revisions.php on line 387

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_validation::$errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/validation.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$validation is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/validation.php on line 215

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_fields is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 29

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_customizer::$preview_errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-customizer.php on line 30

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ACF::$form_front is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-front.php on line 600

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_reference is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_form_widget::$preview_errors is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/forms/form-widget.php on line 36

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WooCommerce::$api is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/class-woocommerce.php on line 556

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderTableMigrator.php on line 25

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderAddressTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderAddressTableMigrator.php on line 42

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostToOrderOpTableMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostToOrderOpTableMigrator.php on line 26

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Automattic\WooCommerce\Database\Migrations\CustomOrderTable\PostMetaToOrderMetaMigrator::$table_names is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/src/Database/Migrations/CustomOrderTable/PostMetaToOrderMetaMigrator.php on line 43

Deprecated: Return type of SkyVerge\WooCommerce\PluginFramework\v5_10_12\SV_WC_DateTime::getTimestamp() should either be compatible with DateTime::getTimestamp(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/compatibility/class-sv-wc-datetime.php on line 85

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_HTTPInterface::$expects_json is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/HTTPInterface.php on line 305

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_HTTPInterface::$owner is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/HTTPInterface.php on line 307

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_API_Spam_ReCaptcha::$data_utils is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/api/Service.php on line 244

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_API_Spam_ReCaptcha::$API_KEY_REQUIRED is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/api/Service.php on line 247

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Countries::$countries is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/class-wc-countries.php on line 51

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Library::$layout_tags is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/feature/Library.php on line 380

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Library::$layout_width is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/feature/Library.php on line 383

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 5704

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10366

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10534

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10556

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10576

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10605

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10634

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10666

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10690

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10724

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10760

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10791

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10939

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 10961

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 21028

Deprecated: Using ${var} in strings is deprecated, use {$var} instead in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 21032

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$width is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_oembed::$height is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-oembed.php on line 32

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_google_map::$default_values is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-google-map.php on line 33

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field__group::$have_rows is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/includes/fields/class-acf-field-group.php on line 31

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_clone::$cloning is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/pro/fields/class-acf-field-clone.php on line 34

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property acf_field_clone::$have_rows is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/advanced-custom-fields-pro/pro/fields/class-acf-field-clone.php on line 35

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$auth_environment is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/includes/class-wc-gateway-braintree.php on line 160

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$connection_settings is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$fraud_settings_title is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_Credit_Card::$threed_secure_title is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_PayPal::$auth_environment is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/includes/class-wc-gateway-braintree.php on line 160

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Braintree_PayPal::$connection_settings is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce-gateway-paypal-powered-by-braintree/vendor/skyverge/wc-plugin-framework/woocommerce/payment-gateway/class-sv-wc-payment-gateway.php on line 369

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_categories is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 114

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_tags is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 115

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Code_Snippets_Library::$code_snippets_type is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/code-snippets/CodeSnippetsLibrary.php on line 116

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$testmode is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 60

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$debug is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 61

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 62

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$receiver_email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 63

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$identity_token is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_BACS::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/bacs/class-wc-gateway-bacs.php on line 49

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_BACS::$account_details is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/bacs/class-wc-gateway-bacs.php on line 52

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Cheque::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cheque/class-wc-gateway-cheque.php on line 41

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$instructions is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 40

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$enable_for_methods is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 41

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_COD::$enable_for_virtual is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/cod/class-wc-gateway-cod.php on line 42

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$testmode is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 60

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$debug is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 61

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 62

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$receiver_email is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 63

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Gateway_Paypal::$identity_token is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/gateways/paypal/class-wc-gateway-paypal.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Cart::$coupon_discount_totals is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/legacy/class-wc-legacy-cart.php on line 266

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WC_Cart::$coupon_discount_tax_totals is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/legacy/class-wc-legacy-cart.php on line 266

Deprecated: preg_match(): Passing null to parameter #2 ($subject) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/worker/src/MWP/EventListener/PublicRequest/SetHitCounter.php on line 113

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_PageResource::$location is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/PageResource.php on line 306

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_BoxShadow::$template is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/field/BoxShadow.php on line 17

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Core_PageResource::$location is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/core/components/PageResource.php on line 306

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$folder_name is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Cart_Notice::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$folder_name is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Woocommerce_Checkout_Additional_Info::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$child_item_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$child_item_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row_Inner::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$additional_shortcode_slugs is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$advanced_setting_title_text is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315
Issue 4 Archives - Food+City Deprecated: strstr(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($haystack) of type string is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/plugins/woocommerce/includes/wc-page-functions.php on line 139
class="archive category category-issue-4 category-86 theme-Divi woocommerce-no-js et_button_no_icon et_pb_button_helper_class et_fixed_nav et_show_nav et_secondary_nav_enabled et_primary_nav_dropdown_animation_fade et_secondary_nav_dropdown_animation_fade et_header_style_left et_pb_footer_columns2 et_cover_background et_pb_gutter et_pb_gutters3 et_pb_pagebuilder_layout et_right_sidebar et_divi_theme et-db">
Side Dish: Fashionable Foods

Side Dish: Fashionable Foods


Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Section::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_Border::$template is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/field/Border.php on line 48

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Field_Divider::$count is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/main-structure-elements.php on line 1498

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Row::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Column::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Text::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Image::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Helper_MultiViewOptions::$inherited_props is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/module/helpers/MultiViewOptions.php on line 686

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Video::$text_shadow is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Video::$margin_padding is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Video::$_additional_fields_options is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property ET_Builder_Module_Video::$_original_content is deprecated in /nas/content/live/fc2/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/class-et-builder-element.php on line 1315

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When trendy foods pop, suppliers and retailers have to be ready — or figure out how to make adjustments fast — to meet demand. In this age of food as social media fodder, we looked into the reality of getting more açaí, seaweed and turmeric on shelves — stat!

Açaí

Açaí bowls are Instagram shark bait. How can you resist snapping a photo of a beautiful deep-purple smoothie bowl layered with tart red strawberries, fat blueberries and flaky white coconut?

It’s almost unfathomable that just 20 years ago, few Americans had even heard of this tiny Amazonian super fruit. Sambazon co-founder Ryan Black says his açaí company struggled to get people interested in the palm fruit “because they hadn’t ever heard of (açaí) and couldn’t pronounce it.” (It’s AH-SIGH-EE.)

Sambazon’s attempts at açaí education have helped drive açaí to the top, as have the influence of social media word of mouth and a surge for health foods. Get enough people declaring something is good, and their Instafriends will want to try it themselves. As of today, #acaibowl is winning Instagram with 885,608 public posts — while the health food of yesteryear, #avocadotoast, nets only 653,172 posts.

In 2016, more than 300,000 tons of açaí products were sold across the world. By 2026, that number should be above one million tons. To keep up with demand, “we have increased sourcing and production in the last few years,” says Sambazon co-founder Jeremy Black. Sambazon owns a processing facility in the Amazon. They have vertically integrated production to streamline their work and protect the delicate fruit, which needs to be quickly processed because it rots.

For a product that feels very 21st century, the harvesting method remains surprisingly ancient and human. Workers scale the trees, pick the fruit and place it in woven baskets to be moved rapidly downstream to the processing facility. The company has been careful to ensure the sustainability of its açaí business by hiring locals to wild-harvest and hand-pick açaí, as well as to plant new seeds.

So far, there doesn’t seem to be an açaí shortage. But what if demand exceeds expectation, or if açaí bowls become the new favorite of a huge market like China? Can the Amazon handle the future of açaí?

Açaí bowls are winning Instagram — and açaí producers have had to keep up with skyrocketing demand. Photo by Trang Doan from Pexels.
 Watch the low-tech harvesting methods Sambazon uses to pick their purple açaí berries.

Seaweeds

“Civil Eats,” the 2014 James Beard Foundation Publication of the Year, calls seaweed “the next big thing in sustainable food.” McCormick Spices identifies furikake as a spice to look out for in its 2018 Flavor Forecast. And the World Bank considers it an ecological product that’s also a problem-solving darling when it comes to feeding Earth’s hungry population.

Seaweed is of course a staple in Asia, where kombu, nori and wakame are consumed daily in soups, seaweed rolls and side dishes. According to the FishStat (2014) Electronic Fisheries Database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, nearly all — 99.4 percent — of the world’s seaweed, is produced in Asia. While Asia has long been seaweed-mad, in the western world nori is suddenly popping up in packaged snacks and in all-American foods you wouldn’t expect, such as popcorn, mayonnaise, smoothies, burgers and hot dogs. Seaweeds are versatile and are produced in many forms to suit many tastes — from a funky fried hijiki tofu burger popular at a New York University student fave called Dojo, to pungent wakame “birthday soup” at L.A. Koreatown’s Hangari Bajirak Kalgooksoo, to Uchi’s clean-cut, nori-wrapped negihama roll in Austin. It’s a far wider array than the leaves of wakame swimming in your Japanese miso soup.

“It is definitely a trend, similar to the recent kale craze,” says Michael Graham, creator of Monterey Bay Seaweeds. “There are flavored nori sheets and seaweed salad in Costco. These are not new products, but they are new vendors, and they are reaching new customers.”

Graham, also a biology professor at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and the editor of a seaweed scientific journal, says he receives dozens of emails and calls a month from people who want to know more about seaweed. “I don’t know if the interest will last many years,” Graham says. “But regardless, it’s positive. Seaweed really is all that it is cracked up to be — so good for you, and good for the environment.”

Seaweed farmers are responding to the demand. From 2011 to 2012, the most recent years for which World Bank figures were available, global production of one of the most commonly eaten seaweeds, red nori (the dry, crispy wrappers of your maki rolls), increased by 13.57 percent, or 82,634 wet metric tons. Global production of an even more popular seaweed, wakame, ramped up by 21.94 percent, or 384,973 wet metric tons. Overall, including other seaweeds, global production in 2012 was approximately 3 million tons dry weight, increasing by 9 percent per year.

By 2050, if the World Bank has its way, we’ll be producing 500 million dry tons of seaweed, adding 10 percent to our current food supply. That’s definitely all-you-can-eat maki. To do that, we’ll have to augment seaweed farming by 14 percent per year. And the bank thinks we could do that in only 0.03 percent of the ocean’s surface area. More for less is usually a scam, but seaweed may be the bargain store of the sea.

Seaweed has moved way beyond miso soup greens and sushi roll wrappers. Multiple varieties are showing up all over the world — not just Asia — as snacks such as popcorn, mayonnaise, smoothies, burgers and hot dogs.
Watch Mike Graham excite chefs with his land-based seaweed farm in Monterrey, California. Video by Zagat.

Turmeric

While Americans have just “discovered” golden milk (aka moon milk, golden latte or turmeric tea), its origin is an old Indian drink called haldi doodh. But its new in-demand status as an anti- inflammatory health food means turmeric, an ancient Ayurvedic root, has staked its spot in the mainstream American pantry.

Turmeric has hit the big time financially, shooting up from $2,700 million in 2012 to more than $3,160 million in 2016. By 2021, according to a report on Technavio, the global turmeric market is projected to post a compound annual growth rate of 6 percent (other sources list it as 5.5 percent by 2027).

“Volume is exploding for organic turmeric,” says Kai Stark, commodity manager at Frontier Co-op, a cooperatively owned wholesaler of natural and organic products based in Norway, Iowa. “In the last 10 years, the amount of organic turmeric Frontier Co-op has purchased increased by a factor of 10.” Despite the demand, turmeric farmers are struggling to stay alive, even as golden 
lattes sell for $15 per cup in the United States.

Approximately 80 percent of turmeric is grown in India, both wild and farmed. But the small margins are leaving some Indian farmers high and dry. To fight this turmeric poverty, Frontier Co-op collaborates with an organization called Peermade Development Society. PDS works with marginalized farmers, especially women and poor rural folks, to develop both the land and the farmers’ budgets sustainably.

“In the past, marginal farmers, who have only one to two hectares of land, would sell their commodities to middlemen for a small price, and then middlemen would sell again, taking the entire margin,” Stark says. “PDS Organic Spices came in to eliminate the middlemen and help these farmers sell directly to companies like Frontier Co-op.”

In 2009, as the turmeric craze began to take hold, Frontier supported a PDS program to scale up their farmers’ organic turmeric production. PDS, with Frontier’s help, began trials to grow a variety of turmeric with a higher content of curcumin, the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in turmeric. Frontier also diversified its organic turmeric supply chain, adding suppliers from Central America.

Sana Javeri Kadri, owner of Diaspora Co., a sustainable, single-origin, direct-trade turmeric company, also cuts out the middleman to bring maximum profits to her turmeric farmer, Mr. Prahbu, in Andhra Pradesh.

Javeri Kadri founded Diaspora Co. as a small side project but was inundated with high demand from the start. When her first four batches of turmeric sold out within hours, she contacted Mr. Prahbu and asked for everything he had. Her last batch sold out in about six weeks. Between filling 20 to 100 orders a week, she closely manages 12 wholesale accounts, asking buyers for six-month projections so Mr. Prahbu has adequate time to plan.

Javeri Kadris says turmeric is planted between May and June, before monsoon season, when it soaks up all the rain. Harvest happens between January and February, so the timing is important — as are the seeds.

“Find the seeds your grandma was using, before the British showed up,” Javeri Kadri says. “If you don’t protect biodiversity, you end up with the heartiest tomato that will survive the grocery store but doesn’t taste very good. It’s the same with turmeric — we’ve already got this mass-marketed bright yellow turmeric with a mild smell, with no biodiversity or cultural history.” Her explicitly political mission is to preserve pre-colonial biodiversity, create the best-tasting, most diverse array of turmerics and reward turmeric farmers in India while doing it.

Still, we can expect the inevitable when it comes to trends: strange products like turmeric-flavored coffee creamer, croissants and cronuts, and frozen turmeric shakes (despite Ayurvedic wisdom that turmeric should be eaten heated for optimal benefits). Because when a trend takes hold, reason may exit through the pricey gift shop, in the form of a chai golden milk donut that screams, “I <3 turmeric.”

Seaweed and turmeric are just two ingredients that jumped from obscure to must-have in record time. Heavy demand means producers have to be creative to keep up.
Diaspora Co. opened in 2017, but owner Sana Javeri Kadri has seen demand for turmeric skyrocket in the past year.

Where Are Food+City Startups Headed?

Where Are Food+City Startups Headed?


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If the 2018 Food+City Challenge Prize entrants are any indication, we’re well on the way toward improving our food system.

Four years into our competition for food supply chain startups (read about all four years’ of finalists), we’ve noticed some interesting trends, including changes in the way entrepreneurs think about innovation. Progress is apparent despite food regulations, a lack of consistent data standards and the companies’ need to achieve scale while remaining small and agile. For many startups, technology is central — but it’s not necessarily all about apps anymore.

Instead, futuristic tools that bring new rigor to agriculture and warehouse management are on the horizon. UAV-IQ Precision Agriculture, one of three $10,000 Food+City Prize winners, provides precision crop monitoring for farmers using drones and sensors. The new technology enables farmers to use the gathered data to make decisions about resources to maximize their yields and reduce crop losses.

“UAV-IQ is attacking the fundamental lack of precise knowledge of where variability exists within fields,” says co-founder Andreas Neuman, former assistant director of operations for the U.S. Air Force’s Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System. “This lack of knowledge and suitable toolkits to first identify and then manage variability leads to massive inefficiencies due to one-size-fits-all approaches, which often result in over-usage of water and chemicals.”

Another high-tech agriculture solution is Transaera, which is commercializing a material developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that absorbs moisture within greenhouses. The product gives indoor farmers more control over their growing environments and enables them to reduce plant disease and increase yield while also reducing energy consumption.

“To feed nine billion people by 2050, we need new agricultural systems,” says founder Sorin Grama. “Indoor agriculture could be an answer, but it is an energy-intensive operation that will not scale unless we figure out how to grow foods using less energy and water.”

Entrepreneurs are also using technology to connect links in the food supply chain. For example, Stowga, a London-based business-to-business startup, connects retailers to unused warehouse space. This “Uber for warehouses” helps firms with excess storage use their space more efficiently; and it offers below-market options to businesses that may need space for only a short time.

Team mentor PJ Tanzillo, head of product at Favor Delivery, has high expectations for Stowga, led by CEO Charlie Pool. “Charlie and team are not your typical early-stage startup,” Tanzillo says. “They have a clear line of sight to a sustainable business, and they have achieved product and market fit. I’m confident their success will continue.”

Making connections across chain links continues to be a key draw for startups. Vinder is a digital platform that connects home gardeners who grew more than they can eat with community members who seek freshly grown food. Sam Lillie launched Vinder by going door to door in his hometown of Port Townsend, Washington, asking residents whether they had home gardens and if they ever had extra produce they’d be willing to sell. It wasn’t long before Lillie connected dozens of home gardeners with produce-hungry families, moving more than 300 pounds of fruits and vegetables among them.

“We have been trained over the last 70 years to buy our produce and processed goods from a giant supermarket chain that sources products from all over the world,” says Lillie. “Vinder reduces the food waste that happens in every city across the country while efficiently reducing delivery miles because you are buying from your neighbor and not some farmer in Argentina.” With the Vinder website and app, consumers in dozens of cities in 11 states can connect with nearby growers to buy the produce they seek, reducing food waste and putting money back into their communities, literally at the grassroots level.

If you don’t have a garden but want to grow your own food, Indiana-based Aggressively Organic, one of three Prize winners, can help. It offers micro-gardening systems for people without access to earth-based gardens. Users can grow lettuces, tomatoes and other fresh veggies in just one square foot of space in their homes. Anchored by cardboard “micro-growth chambers,” the hydroponic systems use a mere 16 ounces of water to grow a head of lettuce. In contrast, conventionally grown lettuces require 25 gallons of water per head.

“Instead of cut-and-kill or pull-and-ship — like all other current modalities of agriculture that end up shipping already dead and dying goods that end up being wasted — our stuff stays living, and we harvest when hungry,” says founder Jonathan Partlow.

Vinder and Aggressively Organic aren’t the only companies working on solutions to curb the growing amount of food waste. The 2018 submissions included ideas for moving excess food to consumers and methods for repurposing waste such as spent grains from beer breweries as ways to limit the amount of waste that ends up in the landfill.

The most tenacious and complicated problems that startups try to solve involve aggregating and transporting food from local producers to markets, restaurants and grocery stores. It’s a problem that food hubs have tried to solve for years. Today’s startup teams are working on a range of platforms: from apps that aggregate farm inventories to hauling and logistics businesses that focus on the transport of food from local producers to consumers. One of our contestants, GrubTubs, retrieves food waste from restaurants, turns it into compost for local chicken farms and then provides eggs back to the restaurants.

Another, Houston-based Grit Grocery, brings the grocery store right to your neighborhood, using a food truck model. Consumers no longer have to travel to the fringes of their communities to shop at energy-gobbling big-box grocery stores. Instead, Grit Grocery trucks bring locally grown produce, local honey and meal kits — featuring, for example, shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico — right into communities, shortening the last food mile and cutting the distance from farm to table.

“The shopping experience fundamentally shapes the flow of food, not only by creating limitations on what kind of food can be supplied but also by subtly creating demand for certain foods or even entire categories of food,” says Dustin Windham, who founded and operates Grit Grocery with partners Michael Powell and Jamal Ansari. “Building on that, we want to develop a new kind of localized supply chain that is specifically tailored to retail experiences, which is more curated, community-driven and socially intimate.”

Some of these startups rely on volunteers and are modeled more like nonprofit organizations that rely on grants and donations. Others are attempting to create value for both farmers and consumers by charging either the farmer or the consumer for their logistics services. These startups are responding to increasing consumer demand for local food from small producers. But it’s not clear if this local supply chain can find a way to make money without working with the larger food distributors.

In Kenya, where large food distributors aren’t as common in the food system, Taimba seeks to tame a chaotic and fragmented supply chain by connecting farmers with retailers and vendors through a cashless business-to-business app. Vendors order their produce via the app, then Taimba retrieves it from the farmers and delivers it to the marketplace. Farmers receive a fair price for their goods, and vendors receive inventory at below-market prices.

“The ability to offer a market and good prices to small-scale farmers has really boosted farmers’ earnings by reducing wastage and paying promptly,” says founder Dominique Kavuisya. Taimba went home with one of three $10,000 Prizes.

While consumers everywhere want more local food, the system to deliver the goods is still awkward, unsustainable and encumbered by capital equipment expenses and the lack of technology and tracking on the small-producer side. We are anxious to see how our finalists work on solving these issues.

Through the innovative work of our contestant startups, we are optimistic that we will see more locally produced fresh produce reach consumers, less food waste in the landfill and better and safer products in our food system.

Prize winner Andreas Neuman of UAV-IQ with Food+City’s Robyn Metcalfe.

UAV-IQ’s monitoring technology in use.

Transaera founder Sorin Grama makes his pitch at the 2018 Challenge Prize.

Transaera’s technology absorbs moisture in greenhouses.

Map by Stowga representing available storage space in the United Kingdom.

Vinder founder and CEO Sam Lillie.

F+C’s Robyn Metcalfe with Prize winner Jonathan Partlow of Aggressively Organic.

Aggressively Organic’s hydroponic growing system with leafy greens.

Grit Grocery truck in Houston.

Grit Grocery founder Dustin Windham, right, visits with a supplier in the field.

F+C’s Robyn Metcalfe congratulates Dominique Kavuisya, Taimba founder and Prize winner.

FOOD+CITY Challenge Prize

Innovation in food takes all forms, from making improvements to pallets to creating new avenues for delivering food or designing packaging that increases shelf life. Since 2015, we’ve hosted a challenge prize for startups in the food space that are challenging our notions of how the supply chain works. The 2018 Challenge Prize was awarded on March 13, 2018, at SXSW Interactive. Visit foodandcity.org/prize to learn more about this year’s entrants and winners.

Chain Gang: New Tech Links Trucks on Open Road

Chain Gang: New Tech Links Trucks on Open Road

Pelotons are not just for bikers. Truckers are bringing their rigs in line with packs of other trucks to save on fuel costs and increase road safety.

Companies such as Peloton and Daimler Trucks are entering the market with their connected truck platforms, enabling convoys of trucks to travel together in close proximity while sharing software and connectivity.

A compromise between driverless trucks and human drivers, these new systems still include a human driver that steers each rig. But the entire convoy accelerates or brakes based on the movements of the driver in the lead truck. Tesla is also joining the pack with its autonomous, electric trucks.

Convoy software can perform real-time route optimization from the cab and provide truckers with an alternative to spending hours, days and weeks at the wheel, navigating traffic and avoiding collisions.

GoGo Chickens: Watch Them Grow from Egg to Dinner

GoGo Chickens: Watch Them Grow from Egg to Dinner

If you live in a city but still want to look deep into the eyes of your dinner, you’re in luck. Thanks to blockchain technology being developed by Chinese insurance tech company ZhongAn Online, people will soon be able to use facial-recognition technology to track organically farmed chickens they’ve pre-purchased. They will also be able to monitor their bird’s movement in real-time through GPS tracking bracelets attached to birds’ legs. Welcome to the brave new world of farm-to-table eating in the 21st century.

ZhongAn is billing the program — called “GoGo Chicken” — as a way for health-conscious city slickers to follow the life cycle of their food, giving them an illusory experience of being just a little less displaced from a food system that is increasingly out of sight of most. Right now only 100,000 birds have been outfitted with GPS bracelets, but the Shanghai-based company plans to incorporate about 23 million birds into project over the next three years, pushing the Internet of Things onto Chinese farms, according to the South China Morning Post.

Once inducted into the GoGo Chicken system, the free-range birds will be attached to devices that track their movement and what kind of food they ate. Because these chickens are slow-grown, they’ll live for four to six months, as opposed to the 45 days most factory-farmed chickens live before slaughter. The facial-recognition technology will ensure that anyone who buys one of these birds will be able to actually see chicken from their smartphones. Technology that can recognize an animal’s face is not new; Google has used it to identify pets in people’s photos.

ZhongAn is trying to take advantage of the growing “farm-based tourism” trend in China, where city-dwellers take weekend trips out to farms where they can interact with food animals. The company has said its technology is a tool for members of China’s surging middle class who are also concerned about food safety and want to keep closer tabs on the sources of what they eat. Those anxieties spread rapidly in China after a 2014 crisis in which a supplier for McDonald’s and KFC was caught selling rotting and expired meats to the fast-food chains.

This article originally appeared in Quartz.

Recipe Tracker: Cooking Out of the Box

Recipe Tracker: Cooking Out of the Box

Have you ever had a compost bin full of bits and druthers that you think are almost edible? You know, the thin peels of broccoli or carrots or apples? What about a refrigerator drawer with wilted greens or the selection of cheeses you got for that cocktail party a month ago? Do you just chuck them out, concerned that they’re not fresh enough to use or be delicious?

And what about the money you spent on those ingredients? Or the costs of producing them? Does tossing no-longer-fresh food take a toll on your grocery budget, as well as your environmental conscience?

As landfills are increasingly brimming with food that was produced but never consumed (for a variety of reasons), it may be time to reconsider the ways in which we assign a value to ingredients. After all, in less affluent eras — or areas of the world and the U.S. — people couldn’t afford to waste food products that could still contribute to a tasty and nutritious meal. Think of it as a really good time to figure out how to be creative with your organic kitchen matter.

The good news is lots of people, including some of the world’s best chefs, are working on ways to address this very issue. In fact, two recent cookbooks — or, let’s say, sources of recipes — approach the notion of creating a dish from opposite ends of the spectrum. One, “Bread is Gold,” by the world-renowned chef Massimo Bottura, is a collection of recipes and stories by and about a variety of chefs who were called to cook using only products that arrived at a pop-up soup kitchen during the 2015 Milan World Expo as excess, day-old or deemed insufficiently fresh to sell.

The Expo’s theme, “Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life,” spoke directly to Bottura, who worked with a parish priest in the city to transform an old theater into a dining hall that could accommodate, restaurant-style, 100 guests each day — serving lunch to area school children and supper to local homeless people.

For the fancy chefs who came to Milan to cook for a day or two at the Refettorio, their constrained ingredient lists were the catalysts to their creativity. Deliveries included days-old bread, produce in various states of maturity or discoloration, cheeses and other dairy products that were nearing or past their sell-by dates. Each day’s supplies were different and unpredictable. After the initial shock of the arbitrariness of that day’s delivery wore off, the enterprising chefs got straight to work, creating delicious and comforting meals for their guests.

“Something of apparently no use could become a secret weapon in the kitchen, a super power that could magically transform a dull dish into a vibrant one,” Bottura writes about the solution Chef Cristina Bowerman devised for using the outer — and often discarded — leaves of vegetables: Dry them and grind them into intense powders that add stealthy flavor to dishes. (She’s not the only one who makes savory powders from dehydrated vegetable peels; read on.)

The chefs wasted nothing because very little was available to start with. Even banana peels were used to make a chutney. It was a revelation, even to one of the world’s top chefs, Bottura. “If you open your mind and start thinking differently about ingredients, then you no longer have to throw away a banana peel ever again,” he writes.

“Bread is Gold” shares stories and recipes by chefs who fed hundreds of people using food deemed unfit to sell. The key to success? Human chefs who applied their knowledge and experience to effect a delicious outcome.

Chef Massimo Bottura

By contrast, for Chef Watson, developed by IBM — yes, that Watson — the sky’s the limit when it comes to ingredients. Through machine learning and algorithms, an online app called Chef Watson will take in up to four ingredients that you suggest (whether or not you see how they might result in something delicious) and output a set of instructions that it “believes” will create an edible dish. Chef Watson offers a never-ending source of combinations for any ingredient under the sun. [Editor’s note: Alas, IBM closed its Chef Watson site in June 2018.]

The computer ingested the entire archive of Bon Appetit magazine, as well as a huge dataset of different ingredients and their detailed flavor profiles. From there, Chef Watson learned to recognize synergies — ingredients that seem to go well together (understood perhaps by frequency of pairing or through the logic of their marrying profiles). Garlic and tomatoes. Mushrooms and butter. Pork and apples.

As the recipe appears on screen it displays three graphic measurements — synergy, pleasantness and surprise — that help the user determine how the hypothetical dish might turn out. Just as constraints fueled the chefs at the Milan Refettorio, the search for novelty drives Watson’s recipes.

While the platform is available online for anyone to use, Chef Watson has been on a few roadshows, employed by featured chefs to make novel dishes. The chronicle of these events is a book called “Cognitive Cooking,” another collection of experiential narratives and try-it-yourself recipes.

“Cognitive Cooking” shares stories and recipes by IBM’s Chef Watson, which generates recipes from any combination of ingredients. The key to success? Human chefs who applied their knowledge and experience to effect a delicious outcome.

If you have unused ingredients lingering in your fridge and pantry, don’t toss them — type them into Chef Watson’s ingredient fields and await a recipe generated just for you. You can refine outcomes through filters such as cuisine type, dish type or even holiday. Dinner solved!

Central to the recipe successes shared in the book are the chefs — the human cooks — whose expertise and creativity helped shape Watson’s “suggestions” of unusual ingredient combinations into viable outcomes. For instance, an early trial was a pastry recipe for Spanish Almond Crescent. But the ingredient list included more liquids than would work to make a stable dough. A chef at the Institute of Culinary Education tweaked the recipe, substituting some ingredients for others to ensure a satisfying outcome but still maintain the flavor profile Chef Watson suggested.

“This is the nature of the human-machine collaboration,” the book notes. “The computer doesn’t dictate. It suggests.”

For IBM Watson Group Engineer Florian Pinel, Chef Watson has great potential to help people eat more healthfully by personalizing recipes according to dietary constraint and personal preference. It also could help reduce food waste by making suggestions based on what lurks in your refrigerator, finding ways to use the last of those beets along with the remains of the star fruit and ground pork you bought for last weekend’s cooking project.

“People can create new, personalized recipes on the fly,” Pinel said in a 2014 TED@IBM talk. “People can cook food that’s flavorful and healthy without ever eating the same thing twice.”

Whether you come to your starting line with leftovers and remainders or a motley collection of ingredients for your next unique Watson creation, a key component is a human willingness to see the value in every piece of the puzzle. Whether it goes into tonight’s dinner or becomes part of the stock for tomorrow’s sauce, just about every edible thing on Earth has a value that should prevent it from simply being next week’s landfill fodder.

IBM engineer Florian Pinel talks about the thinking behind Chef Watson in this 2014 TED@IBM Talk.

That’s certainly the philosophy that drives Chef Ian Thurwachter of Intero, an Italian-themed fine-dining restaurant in Austin.

Fine-dining restaurants are often known for their pristine ingredients and precise techniques, the combination of which should result in a mind-blowing dining experience that’s hard to replicate at home. But often, there’s a cost to this level of quality, and it’s not only found in the prices on the menu.

For example, to create carrot brunoise, the delicate ⅛-inch dice that often garnish soups or stews, one must start with an irregular, round vegetable and make it square. In the same vein, to get to the heart of a broccoli stem, arguably the sweetest, most tender and delicious part of the green brassica, the outer peel must be removed first.

In both instances, once you’ve finished cutting and have the finished ingredients, ready to sprinkle or roast or puree, you also have a pile of peel and other trimmings — byproducts that often end up in a compost bin, or worse, the garbage.

Not so at Intero, where Chef Thurwachter operates a no-waste kitchen in which every stem, peel, animal organ, off-cut of meat or other commonly tossed odd and end is put to flavorful use.

Chef Ian Thurwachter. Photo by Kenny Braun.

This Intero dish features a pesto made from radish tops, carrot tops and almonds. Extra carrot greens top the dish as a leafy garnish.

Yum Yum powder (dehydrated fermented broccoli scraps) sprinkled over a dish that highlights the rest of the broccoli plant, grilled florets and thin slices of pickled broccoli stem.

A branzino fish entree dusted with lemon powder.

Take the humble, fibrous broccoli peel. At Intero, they pack it with salt and sugar and leave it to ferment for several days. “It balloons up, is intensely pungent, with a very off-putting smell. But the flavor is really awesome — it’s got this tart saltiness,” Thurwachter explains. “We take all that and dehydrate it and turn it into a powder that’s got this background funkiness. It’s intensely savory, and we use it as a seasoning.” (Another clever dehydrated use for vegetable peels….)

The idea for this transformation came from a sous chef who had seen some something similar with mushrooms. Thurwachter engages his team in regular brainstorming sessions to figure out how best to use all the scraps.

“About once a week it’s a necessity,” he says, “but we try to make it an ongoing thing. Every day we have projects.” Projects such as dehydrating the smoked carrots his bartender used for a cocktail. The resulting powder will go into a pasta dough. Or using remnants from artichokes that were served as a bar snack in a stock that pairs with a rabbit tortelloni. “It’s just constantly trying to move these puzzle pieces around,” he says about the challenge of using all the parts.

It’s a challenge that resembles the no-waste reality of Italian farmers of earlier generations. “I love Italian cooking more than I love Italian food because it’s really a cuisine that historically is based on poverty,” Thurwachter says. He explains how veal farmers used to sell their prime cuts to fancy restaurants in Milan and keep the off-cuts — the lower-valued and harder-to-sell cuts — such as the shanks and head, for themselves.

But just as Bottura’s chefs made scrumptious meals from undervalued ingredients in Milan in 2015, Italian farmers of yore tapped into their own creative wells.

“They came up with things like osso bucco milanese (using the veal shank), which is the quintessential Italian dish,” Thurwachter explains. And it didn’t stop there. Arancini, fried rice balls, are made from leftover rice, stuffed with leftover veal and fried the next day for yet another meal originating from humble ingredients. “And then there are these really elaborate preparations where the farmer’s wife took the time to completely bone out the veal head and roll it up into this beautiful roulade and braise it and then slice it super thin and serve it with bitter greens and a salad. I would take that veal roulade with a salad over a veal chop any day of the week,” Thurwachter says, vividly illustrating an alternative way to value ingredients.

While he’s set a different challenge for himself than Massimo Bottura or Florian Pinel, Chef Thurwachter relies on a similar asset: “Our biggest resource in the kitchen is our collective creativity.”

Paste made from fermented broccoli peel before being dehydrated.

Homemade vinegar-in-process at Intero using carrot tops and leftover wine from bottles sold by the glass.

Smarter TV Dinners: Getting Under the Hood of Today’s Takeout

Smarter TV Dinners: Getting Under the Hood of Today’s Takeout

Remember when you had to leave your house to eat restaurant fare? Today, eateries and delivery companies are working together to bring the restaurant dine-in experience straight to your dining room. Eating out in is just a click away. Here’s how it works.

“I ‘favor’ all the time.” Like many Austinites, Pete has co-opted the name of the local food delivery service Favor as a verb.

Exhausted after a multi-city business trip, he sinks into his gray green leather couch and plants stockinged feet onto an oversized ottoman. Plucking his smartphone from a row of remotes, he opens an app and scrolls past bright photos of tacos, pancakes and pho. He settles on an upscale neighborhood Italian restaurant and, within seconds, has sent an order into the ether. Almost immediately he receives notification that a runner named Joshua has grabbed his order.

Pete grins. “I cook at home when I have someone to cook with and for, but tonight it would cost me just as much to go to the store to buy food for a meal. And I’m lazy.” Pete’s not alone.

Favor, along with other meal delivery services like DoorDash, Uber Eats and GrubHub, is part of a rapidly growing niche within the foodservice industry. And they’ve become a boon to an otherwise mildly stagnant sector of the economy — restaurants. A recent study by industry analyst Bonnie Riggs, of market research company NPD Group, finds that half of meals purchased at restaurants are now eaten at home. She predicts that the future trajectory of the industry could improve if restaurants focus on providing consumers with the choices and fast delivery times they need and want.

In short, people from young professionals to busy families are increasingly taxed for time and stressed. One solution is to recover time typically devoted to shopping and cooking by browsing delivery menus. Five years ago, home delivery was largely still the realm of the pizzeria. In fact, Favor’s origin is intertwined with pizza through the college job experience of the company’s founders.

“Ben Doherty and Zac Maurais admit that they were probably the geekiest pizza delivery guys,” says Keith Duncan, senior vice president at Favor. “They were constantly calculating on spreadsheets the most efficient delivery routes.”

Favor, like many of its competitors, started about five years ago. Austin was its first market; now the company is concentrating on expanding into additional Texas cities. Duncan estimates that, since launching in 2013, Favor has completed more than seven million food deliveries — and 90 percent of these were prepared meals from restaurants.

A customer favorite from Tyson’s Tacos in Austin, which has seen its business jump since it partnered with Favor. Photo by Kenny Braun.

Favor delivery man Ronald Kaase swings by Tyson’s Tacos in Austin to pick up an order for delivery. Tyson’s Tacos has seen its business grow 30 percent over a year ago — a result of increased Favor orders. Photo by Kenny Braun.

“On the front end, we have a consumer app for placing an order, and on the back end there is a system that makes sense of all the orders and assigns them to delivery folks — runners — who can communicate with the customer once they accept the order,” says Duncan. “We are constantly optimizing the experience to increase the speed of delivery, and we encourage customers to order within a certain radius of their home because proximity is really important for the quality of what is essentially takeout.”

How has this new business model developed so quickly? A confluence of several factors — including the normalizing of cashless, online retail over the past decade, the fact that three people out of four Americans now own smartphones and a trend that sees half of all Americans using their phones for online purchases — has led to a rapid increase in mobile commerce. In fact, it is predicted that by 2020, m-commerce will catapult to include nearly half of total U.S. digital commerce, reaching $284 billion.

Even more critical to today’s digital meal delivery system is a new workforce made up of independent contractors. Favor, for example, uses more than 25,000 runners who snatch orders when they want to and deliver meals in cities using their own cars, scooters or bicycles. The benefit of this flexible workforce to restaurants — and pizza parlors! — is huge, since the delivery team is made up of on-demand contractors rather than regular employees, who would need to be paid by the hour regardless of whether they were out making deliveries.

More traditional restaurants also benefit by taking advantage of what is, essentially, a new revenue stream. According to a 2015 study by the delivery company GrubHub, restaurants that add digital ordering average a 30 percent increase in revenue from takeout. Anecdotally, Favor’s Duncan knows of hundreds of restaurants that avoided closing by capitalizing on this new revenue stream. Digital meal delivery is so successful that there is now a new trend in some cities: “ghost restaurants,” which are essentially just kitchens, with no table service or wait staff.

The growth of the meal delivery industry is also a boon to the companies who develop the digital apps. All seem to be capitalizing on the service provided by the flexible workforce. Favor delivers more than meals — everything from milk to medicine — which will only expand now that the company was recently acquired by regional supermarket chain H-E-B. DoorDash is no exception. Headquartered in the Bay Area, this company has expanded into numerous cities across the country to efficiently deliver any purchase.

“The vision for DoorDash is not just [being] a food delivery company but instead a logistics platform, [striving] to become experts in delivering anything in a city from point A to Point B,” says regional general manager Benjamin Lipson. “We get increasingly sophisticated and learn from our experience, incorporating it in our algorithms and focusing on optimizing travel time.”

Twenty-seven minutes after placing his order, Pete’s doorbell rings. There is Joshua, plastic carrier bag in hand. The exchange is seamless and short because Pete has already paid for his meal, delivery fee and tip through the app.

He now has the ultimate TV dinner for his night at home: delicate rounds of roasted beets and oranges resting amid bright specks of fennel and mint, followed by a perfect portion of beef nestled in polenta, shallots and savory gremolata.

Can you smell the sweet, layered herbs in the vinaigrette? Yum!